CrossRef Metadata Search a nice tool that can take a free-form citation and return possible matches from CrossRef's database. If you get a match CrossRef can take the DOI and format for you it in a variety of styles using DOI content negotiation.
If, like me, you spend a lot of time trying to find DOIs (and other identifiers) for articles by first parsing citations into their component parts, then this is good news. It's also good news for publishers that may balk at one of CrossRef's requirements for joining its club: if you want DOIs for your articles it's not enough to submit metadata for your article, you also need to submit the list of references that article cites, including their DOIs. This requirement enables CrossRef to offer their "cited by" service, but imposes a burden on smaller journals operating on a tight budget (e.g., Zootaxa). With CrossRef Metadata Search you can just send author-supplied citation strings from the manuscript and have a good chance of finding the corresponding DOI, if it exists.
Of course, the service only works if the article has a DOI, so it's not a complete solution to being able to parse bibliographic citations into their component parts. But it's a nice model, and I'm tempted to apply the same approach to my databases, such as BioStor or my ever growing Mendeley library (which is larger than the Mendeley desktop client can easily handle). A quick way to do this would be to use Cloudant which has cloud-based CouchDB coupled with a Lucene-based fulltext search engine. If I've time I may try and put a demo together.